For a DC Motor Armature, There is a simple method of determining the condition of the Armature.
Drop Test Method: Give a DC Voltage across the commutator Segments for one pole pitch area from a Power supply or Battery. Connect Positive end of the DC power supply at one end and the Negative end at the opposite end.
For example if the total number of commutator segments are say, 40 in the armature to be tested and the total number of poles is 4, then one pole pitch area will be 10 segments.
Now measure with a Milli volt meter say 0 to 10 millivolts range, the Voltage Drop at the center point, that is between 5th and 6th segment. again rotate the Armature Clockwise or Anti clock wise and measure the next set of segments.
Like this complete measurements for all the 40 segments pairs. simultaneously recording the readings.
If there is any defect in the winding, that is shorted or open, it will show in the readings.
If the reading of Milli volt Meter is uniform for the all the 40 segments pairs, than the armature is good. If there is short between winding or the winding coil between one particular pair of segments, the reading will be less drop in millivolts. If there is any loose or open, the reading will be more than normal readings. Thus one can determine the condition of a DC armature for short or lose or open winding.
When testing a DC armature there is a series of tet should that should be done. The first is. Ground insulation test or more commonly known as a mugger test, usually done at 500VDC. If the ground reading is above 1 meg ohm the armature is good to go to the next test which is a bar to bar test. There are 2 pieces of equipment to conduct this test the best. One of these combined with the mugger test will tell you if the armature is satisfactory return to service. The first bar to bar test is conducted with a "DLRO" digital low resistance ohm meter. The meter will circulate about 8-10 amps thru adjacent successive bars and measure the milli ohm resistance of the circuit. If there is more than a 5% variation then the armature is shorted turn to turn. The next tester which is called a high frequency bar to bar tester. The tester has 4 tet points and as you move it around the armature a high frequency voltage is introduced across the pairs of successive windings and the meter will show a variation if there is a shorted turn. If it passes either of these 2 bar to bar test and the ground insulation test then it can be returned to service.
For a DC Motor Armature, There is a simple method of determining the condition of the Armature.
I am currently investigating the design of a three phase axial flux PM motor, but replacing conventional materials with high temperature superconductors. I'm interested to know the thoughts of group members regarding design rules/rules of thumb relating to the number of stator coils and rotor poles. Many in the amateur wind turbine community seem to use a 4:3 ratio (magnets:coils), but I can't seem to find anything 'official' on the topic.
An equal number of magnets: coils would cause problems with starting the motor and with cogging/torque pulsations.
The only textbook I've found dedicated to the design of axial flux PM motors is Jacek Gieras's book on 'Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Brushless Machines', but this seems only to mention examples of coils: poles ratios (e.g., 12 stator coils and 8 rotor poles, 9/8, etc.).
"Design of Brushless Permanent-Magnet Motors" by J.R. Hendershot Jr. and TJE Miller is an excellent design book and pages 3-50 thru 3-55 illustrate the 3 phase winding patterns you describe (8/6, 8/9, and 4/6). Whether axial air gap or radial air gap the principles are the same. I assume with an axial air gap machine you do not want phases overlapping each other, that is the common factor in the three patterns above. This keeps winding simple and compact and is commonly used on smaller 3 phase brushless motors.
These windings do not automatically guarantee a true BEMF sine wave form. If you want a sinusoidal waveform you will have to do some work on tailoring the magnetic design (gap between magnets, skewing, air gap profiling, etc.). Some servo motor manufacturers do just this to get a true BEMF sine wave to match their sine wave controllers for ripple free torque operation.
Another decision is does the coil center have a laminated steel pole or only and air center. Air gap windings should be axially thin and have no hysteresis component which is good for high speed operation. A slotted pole winding can handle more wire bulk but a laminated construction may be difficult to implement, you might look at an AC Powdered Metal for the Armature and teeth.
If you allow phase coils to overlap there are a great many other winding patterns possible (listed in the reference book), some are better for Trapezoid controller drive and some are better for sine wave controller drive (BEMF should match controller drive type). Just depends on you end goals.
AC Motors - Variable torque: AC motors have a speed torque characteristic that varies as the square of the speed. For example, an 1,800/900-rpm electrical motor that develops 10 hp at 1,800 rpm produces 2.5 hp at 900 rpm. Since ac motors face loads, such as centrifugal pumps, fans, and blowers, have a torque requirement that varies as the square or cube of the speed, this ac motor characteristic is usually adequate.
AC Motors - Constant torque: These ac motors can develop the same torque at each speed, thus power output varies directly with speed. For example, an ac motor rated at 10 hp at 1,800 rpm produces 5 hp at 900 rpm. These ac motors are used in applications with constant torque requirements such as mixers, conveyors, and compressors.
1- Synchronous motors generally offer more efficiency than induction ones, and hence in higher ratings (about 5000 hp and higher) they may be more cost effective considering Life Cycle Costs. The exact size of preference to switch to Synchronous shall be determined based on LCC analysis of specific application.
2- A Large reciprocating compressor is a highly variable load and a synchronous motor will keep its speed in this situation while the induction motor would respond with fluctuating speed.
3- Based on API 618 (with reference to IEC and NEMA), a synchronous motor used for reciprocating compressor may tolerate 66% variation in current, while an induction motor is allowed to have only 40% variation in current which in larger compressors may be exceeded (because of variable load).Also Higher efficiency induction motors with less slip, cause more current variations and are prohibited.
Synchronous motors are characterized by limited starting torque, the ability to actively control power factor and less current in-rush than the induction motor. The synchronous motor also requires active matching of torque demand with motor output. Synchronous motors started “across-the–line” also produce oscillatory torques at the twice slip frequency during acceleration (i.e., starting at 120 Hz and decreasing to 0 Hz at full speed). These torques generally require additional transient torsional analysis because of the potential for damage.
Synchronous motors are usually advantageous on slow speed applications (e.g., low speed reciprocating compressors operating from 200-400 RPM) and also on machines larger than about 10,000 to 15,000 HP. With both motor types, it is important to match the compressor torque versus speed requirements with motor torque versus speed capabilities as discussed in Sections 6.0 and 7.0. Both induction and synchronous motor types can be coupled with a VFD for variable speed operation.
If the motor is being driven by a variable frequency drive with sophisticated drive algorithms, i.e. controllers that can track the load torque variations, then both the efficiency and transient stability problems can be solved together.
The other significant thing is the starting problem. The transient load torque is also present at starting so the motor has to be able to accelerate through the load transients and be capable of starting when the compressor is sitting at the highest load.
How to add a separate AC line reactor / DC choke in case the variable frequency drive doesn't have it? Can we use a separate line reactor if it's not built in with the VFD drive? What all parameters I would have to look into, if I want to add the line reactor? Is there any sizing criteria? How would I have to install it?
It depends on how much THD you want to have and how much money you want to spend. If this is for electric motor protection there are additional methods of spike suppression and better reactors/filters.
Size for amps and voltage.
THD will vary will design and specifications. You want the reactor to filter or tune out the unwanted frequencies, mainly the AC drive carrier frequency. One often overlooked parameter is what rejection frequency the reactor is wound for. You want a reactor wound for the rejection frequency you have your VFD drive set at.
This will make you want to raise the carrier frequency to make the reactor smaller, less turns, and less expensive. Before you do this look at the de-rating tables and other factors involved with a high carrier frequency.
It's always best to first check with your VFD installation and operation documentation. It is likely that the motor drives manufacturer makes recommendations for reactor ratings. That said 3 to 5% reactance at the VFD drive's rated input current is always a good solution. If there is no internal bus choke or reactor in the VFD then use 5%. Don't sweat the voltage drop. The drop is in quadrature to the source voltage and so mostly subtracts at a 90 degree angle. Thus, the drop will be less than half the %reactance.
Variable frequency drive is an electric device to change AC power frequency to control AC motor speed, In addition, it also can change the AC power voltage.
In the past, variable frequency drive was included in motor generators, rotating converters and other electrical equipment. With the emergence of semiconductor electronic devices, VFD can be completely manufactured independent.
Variable Frequency Drive allows the electric motor smooth start up, control startup current growing from zero to motor rated current, reduce impact to the power grid and avoid the motor being burned out, also provide protect in motor running process. Besides these functions, the main function of variable frequency drive is adjusting the motor running speed according to actual operation conditions, to achieve energy saving effect.
Generally, variable frequency drive contains two components: rectifier and inverter. The rectifier converts incoming AC power to DC power, then the inverter converts DC power to the desired frequency AC power. In addition to these two parts, variable frequency drive may also contain transformer and battery. Wherein the transformer changes the voltage and isolates input/output circuit, the battery compensates energy loss inside the VFD drive circuit.
The variable frequency drive not only changes the AC power frequency, but also can change electric AC motor rotation speed and torque. In such conditions, the most typical VFD structure is a three-phase two level source variable frequency drive. The VFD controls each phase voltage by the semiconductor switch and pulse width modulation (PWM).
In addition, variable frequency drive also can be used in aerospace industry. For example, the electrical equipment inside aircraft needs 400Hz AC power, but generally the power on ground is 50Hz or 60Hz. Therefore, when the aircraft is parked on ground, the variable frequency drive will convert 50Hz/60Hz to 400Hz AC power to suitable for the aircraft.
All motors have a "torque vs speed" characteristic.
DC machines are very simple: constant torque from zero speed to some "base speed", and then a "constant power" ranging from base speed to top speed. In the constant torque range, acceleration is dependent on applied voltage, with the field under constant full current excitation. In the constant power range, voltage is held constant and the field current is reduced, thereby achieving an increase in speed (hence the term "field weakening").
AC machines are somewhat more complex, since the curves are nowhere near as linear. The key points are:
- "starting torque", which is the torque achieved at the locked rotor (zero speed) condition
- "pull in torque", which is the available machine torque at the point where the machine pulls into synchronism (synchronous machines only)
- "pull out or breakdown torque", which is the peak torque the machine can sustain momentarily before stalling
- "load torque", which is the amount of torque actually required by the process at any operating point
- "accelerating torque", which is the difference between what the machine is capable of producing and the load torque
A machine is rated for the "full load torque" condition which is the rated torque performance of the machine. In imperial (lb.ft) units, that would be 5252 * HP / RPM. It can produce this torque continuously, provided it has the rated conditions of applied terminal voltage and applied terminal current (for both rotor and stator, as applicable).
The time required to start a motor is dependent primarily on the accelerating torque available and the combined inertia (motor + remainder of drive train).
Note that available starting and pull-in torque during the transient operation of starting is proportional to the square of the applied voltage - if the voltage dips below 1.0 per unit, the available torque will be significantly reduced.
When operating an AC machine on a
Case: Two electrical motors that design for altitude <1000 m but now this two electrical motor have installed on altitude 1880 m and this electrical motors become very hot. The electrical machines power is 15300KW & 9700KW and they cooled by force air and water cooler.
First - machines designed for higher-than-normal altitude (i.e. in excess of 1000 m = 3300 ft above sea level) are designed with lower allowable temperature rises. The rule-of-thumb approximation is 1 degree C for every 100 m above 1000.
This means a typical Class B rise (max 80 C over 40 C ambient) will be designed for a max 71 C rise over ambient at 1880 m altitude.
Since temperature is more-or-less proportional to the square of the current, the design either reduced in output power to limit the current, or is "overdesigned" so that the resultant output power is the effective de-rate condition. In this case, the "sea level" rating of 15300 kW would become 15300 * (71/80)^2 = 15300 * 0.94 = 14382 kW. Likewise, the 9700 kW machine would be rated for 9118 kW.
The ability to cool the machine effectively is based on two things: the amount of coolant in direct contact with the heat source(s), and the pressure of the coolant flow. At altitude, the density of the coolant is reduced significantly, hence the requirement to operate at lower power ratings. The pressure of the airflow over the windings, etc is ALSO reduced at higher altitude, making the cooling more inefficient.
Speeding up the blower (i.e. going from 6 pole speed to 4 pole speed, for example) will overcome some of this by increasing both airflow and pressure. However, the power draw on the blower drive motor may also necessitate an increase in size to accommodate the new loading parameters (including the effects of high altitude on it!). Note that if the air movement within the machine enclosure is dependent solely on the MACHINE rotor speed (i.e. a shaft mounted fan), there will be a need to develop and apply a separately-powered fan to accommodate the required changes.
The probability of voltage breakdown / corona / flashover is increased above 1800 m as well, which means at least taking a cursory look at both creepage and strike distances.
And finally - if, after all this, the machine is still overheating ... time to look at the cleanliness of the liquid side of the heat exchanger. This may mean cleaning or replacing the tubing and headers, determining liquid flow rates (and pressures) and ensuring they are within original design criteria (roughly 3.8 litres per minute for each kW of loss in the rotating machine).
Reference voltage adjustment
Reference voltage is the basic condition of the equipment is able to start or not. Reference voltage adjustment requires the electric motor rotates immediately after voltage applied and the load start up. If the motor does not rotate after voltage applied, we should increase the reference voltage setting value; if the motor start speed is too fast, then reduce the reference voltage setting value. Reference voltage adjustment should be repeated for several times until the load starts immediately after voltage applied. For example, a smoke blower has a 110kW motor in debugging process with soft starter, reference voltage adjusts to 75% rated voltage, the starting current is 500A, motor start up fast; reference voltage adjusts to 40% rated voltage, motor start up in slow speed, starting current rise from 200A to 600A smoothly, and current return back after motor start is completed, therefore, it's fully meet the soft-start requirements.
Starting time adjustment
Motor acceleration torque and starting time has direct relationship. Electronic soft starter can make the motor with voltage ramp start from initial voltage to full voltage at the set time (0.5 to 2408). Like it can reduce water impact if we extend the time of water pump flow from 0 to 100%, increase the pump speed variation time means increase the starting time which can be achieved by adjusting the starting time of the soft starter. Starting time should be adjusted according to the specific loads and repeated tests, in order to achieve smooth acceleration within starting time.
Soft starter allows the output voltage decreases gradually to achieve soft stop, in order to protect the equipment. Such as the impact of the water pump, when the pump stops suddenly, the water flow inertia in the pipe will raise the pipe and valves pressure suddenly and cause pipeline damaged. Soft stop to extend parking time will solve such the impact.
Koil can make the synthesis (i.e. design the winding layout from slot-pole combination) only for symmetrical windings. To have a symmetrical 3-phase winding the back EMFs must be equal and out of phase of 120 electrical degrees. Looking at the star of slots, this means that the spokes in the star (or phasors, one for each slot) must be equally spaced and the number of spokes must be multiple of the phase number.
Considering this example, the machine periodicity t is computed as:
Then the number of spokes in the star of slot is Q/t=129/3=43.
In order to have a balanced winding (assuming m=3 as number of phases) Q/t must be divisible by 3. Such condition can be written in general as Q/(m t) integer.
In this case we have Q/(mt)=129/(3 3)= 129/9=14.333 which is not integer, so that the winding is not symmetrical as here described.
Maybe there are some different/non standard arrangement of the winding.